To make the Protocol effective, countries have banned the export and import of controlled substances with countries that are not Parties to the Protocol. Secondly, the trade ban would extend to products containing a controlled substance and, thirdly, to products manufactured with those substances. The latter has been removed from the agenda. During the negotiations, countries feared that these provisions would violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). To address these concerns, paragraph 8 of Article 4 allows trade with countries that are not Parties but comply with the Protocol, although this requires the Parties to decide that the non-Party complies with the rules. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol have each been ratified by 196 nations and the European Union, making them the first universally ratified treaties in the history of the United Nations.  Because of its widespread adoption and implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been hailed as an example of exceptional international cooperation, with Kofi Annan calling it “perhaps the most successful international agreement to date.”   The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer aimed to ban the global production and use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including CFCs, HCFCs and halons. From the beginning, the negotiation relied heavily on leadership and innovative approaches. Many negotiations were conducted in small informal groups. This allowed for a genuine exchange of views and the opportunity to address some issues of trust, such as. B the further development of the Multilateral Fund. Among the people who negotiated the treaty were scientists, which gave credibility. Antarctica`s ozone hole gained momentum in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century.
The ozone layer over the Arctic has also thinned, but not as pronounced as over Antarctica. Despite these results, most scientists say that the ozone layer will eventually recover. They note that the success of the contract is solely responsible for the significant decrease in the ODC available for release into the atmosphere. However, due to natural variability, signs of recovery may not become visible until about 2020. According to the World Meteorological Organization and UNEP, full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected until 2049 at mid-latitudes and 2065 over Antarctica. Pending changes in the scientific evidence on the ozone layer and the emergence of new problems in the implementation of the Protocol, negotiators have included several provisions aimed at creating flexibility. The first concerns technology and economic assessment bodies which regularly carry out expert assessments. The second concerns the differentiated procedures for modifying the obligations to control substances, through adaptations and modifications. In the adaptation process, parties can adjust targets and timelines for phasing out chemicals that are already listed without having to go through a formal change process. The adjustments shall take effect six months after receipt of the notice of formal notice by the Parties and shall be binding on all countries that are Parties to the Protocol. A formal amendment is needed to add new chemicals to the list of controlled substances. Unlike the adaptation process, changes are binding only on countries that ratify them.
As a result, different States are bound by different obligations. Countries that accede to the agreement after the entry into force of an amendment will assume the commitments from that date, but will have to ratify any future amendment so that it can bind it. Within 25 years of signing, the MP`s parties celebrate important milestones. Significantly, the world has phased out 98 per cent of the ozone-depleting substances contained in nearly 100 hazardous chemicals worldwide; Each country fulfils strict obligations; and the member obtained the status of the world`s first regime with universal ratification; even the youngest member state, South Sudan, which was ratified in 2013. UNEP has received awards for reaching a global consensus that “demonstrates the world`s commitment to ozone conservation and, more broadly, to the protection of the global environment.”  September 16 is World Ozone Day, marking the anniversary of the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the historic international agreement focused on healing the ozone layer and protecting our planet from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. To learn more about World Zozon Day and the history of the Montreal Protocol and its implementation in the United States, check out this report. Given all these factors and more, the Montreal Protocol is considered one of the most successful environmental agreements of all time. What the Parties to the Protocol have accomplished since 1987 is unprecedented and continues to provide an inspiring example of what international cooperation can achieve at its best. One of the most important innovations of the protocol is the process of dealing with non-compliance issues. The Parties established an Implementation Committee to review the Parties` annual reports and developed a set of measures that could be applied in cases of non-compliance, including technical assistance to enable the country to comply with the rules. This precedent has been widely followed in other environmental agreements, such as the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and its Protocols, the United Nations Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The Montreal Protocol, concluded in 1987, is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). .