Schengen Agreement Explained

It takes its name from the city of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the agreement was signed in 1985. It entered into force in 1995. In fact, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of the Schengen visa. Although this is not part of the initial provisions of the agreement, visitors from the fifteen countries mentioned above only need a visa for all. The Schengen visa can allow non-members of the European Union to travel freely through the countries participating in the program. In December 1996, two non-EU states, Norway and Iceland, signed an association agreement with the signatories to the agreement to become part of the Schengen area. Although this agreement never entered into force, both countries became members of the Schengen area after concluding similar agreements with the EU. [9] The Schengen Convention itself was not open for signature by non-EU states. [10] In 2009, Switzerland completed its formal accession to the Schengen area with the adoption of an Association Agreement by referendum in 2005.

[11] The Schengen Convention comprises two different agreements ratified in 1985 and 1990 respectively. Together, they abolished border controls and greatly facilitated transit through Europe. The two individual agreements provide that relations between Iceland and Norway, of the one part, and Ireland and the United Kingdom, of the other part, as regards the areas of the Schengen acquis applicable to Iceland and Norway, are governed by an agreement approved by the Council of the European Union on 28 June 1999. Originally, the Schengen Treaties and the rules adopted under them were officially independent of the EEC and its successor, the European Union (EU). In 1999, they were incorporated into European Union law by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which codified Schengen in EU law while providing for derogations for Ireland and the United Kingdom, the latter having existed since their exit from the EU. EU Member States that do not have an opt-out and have not yet joined the Schengen area are legally obliged to do so if they meet technical requirements. Although it is linked to EU law, several third countries are included in the territory after the signing of the agreement. The two Schengen agreements were a major breakthrough for transport in Europe.

The queues were often a kilometre long and waited for border patrols to greet them, but the agreements helped to put an end to them. Now people can enter neighboring countries without having to show any form of ID. Of course, airlines still require you to show it for security reasons, but border controls are much easier to navigate and, in some cases, don`t even exist. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, it has lost treaty status for EU members, which could only be changed in accordance with its provisions. Instead, changes will be made in accordance with the EU legislative process under the EU Treaties. [12] Ratification by the former signatories of the Agreement is not necessary to amend or repeal the former Schengen acquis in whole or in part. [13] Acts laying down the conditions for entry into the Schengen area are now adopted by a majority of EU legislative bodies. The new EU Member States do not sign the Schengen Agreement as such, but are required to implement the Schengen rules within the framework of already existing EU legislation, which any new entrant must accept. [Citation needed] Differences of opinion between Member States led to an impasse in the abolition of border controls within the Community, but in 1985 five of the then ten Member States – Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany – signed an agreement on the phasing out of common border controls. The agreement was signed on the ship Princess Marie-Astrid on the Moselle near the city of Schengen in Luxembourg[5], where the territories of France, Germany and Luxembourg meet.

Three of the signatories, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, had already abolished common border controls within the framework of the Benelux Economic Union. [Citation needed] The United Kingdom and Ireland started to participate in certain aspects of the Schengen Agreement, such as the Schengen Information System (SIS), from 2000 and 2002 respectively. The ETIAS travel authorisation gives access to all the countries included in the Schengen Agreement, i.e. the ETIAS countries and the Schengen countries are the same, an ETIAS authorisation is effectively a Schengen visa. The Paris attacks of 13 November, in which 130 people were killed, led to an urgent overhaul of the Schengen Agreement. This situation means that non-EU Schengen Member States have few formally binding options to influence the design and development of Schengen rules; their options are effectively reduced to consent or withdrawal from the agreement. However, prior to the adoption of certain new laws, consultations are held with the countries concerned. [14] Although Switzerland is not part of the EU, due to its location at the heart of Europe, it is strongly linked economically and socially to many Schengen states and, together with Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein (other non-EU member states within the Schengen area), belongs to the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Switzerland became a member of the Schengen area after the signing of the agreement on 26 October 2004 and the start of its implementation on 12 December 2008.

With the entry into force of the Schengen Protocol to the Treaty of Amsterdam of 2 October 1997 on 1 May 1999, Schengen cooperation was transposed into Union law – initially only on the basis of an international agreement. Obtaining the visa resulting from the Schengen Agreement is similar to any visa procedure. You apply, send your passport, and then get a stamp when you are approved. However, you must meet certain criteria and requirements in order to qualify for a visa under the Schengen Agreement. One of the most notable requirements is Schengen visa insurance. A short-stay visa costs €60 (€46; $66), but only $35 for Russians, Ukrainians and citizens of some other countries under visa facilitation agreements. The Schengen countries are the European countries that have signed the Schengen Agreement. These countries operate without internal border controls, allowing free movement between participating countries. Originally, the concept of free movement was intended to allow European workers to move and settle freely in any EU state, but it lagged behind the removal of border controls within the Union. Special arrangements have been made for eu Member States Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Nine other EU countries joined in 2007 after the EU`s eastward enlargement in 2004.

These are the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Many of Europe`s best-known holiday destinations are located in the Schengen area, including Paris Rome Berlin Venice`s alpine ski resorts as well as natural wonders such as the Norwegian fjords and Greek islands. The Schengen area without borders guarantees the free movement of more than 400 million EU citizens, as well as third-country citizens living in the EU or visiting the EU as tourists, exchange students or for professional purposes (all persons legally residing in the EU). The free movement of persons allows every EU citizen to travel, work and live in an EU country without any special formalities. Schengen reinforces this freedom by allowing citizens to move within the Schengen area without being subject to border controls. There were concerns that the murderers had so easily hatched from Belgium to Paris and that some had entered the EU with masses of migrants via Greece. Below you will find a list of countries that have fully transposed the Schengen acquis (so-called full transposition countries), as well as details on when border controls have been or will be abolished: some EU Member States – Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania and Croatia – are not yet full members of the Schengen area; Border controls are still carried out between these countries and the Schengen area (see below for the situation with regard to the United Kingdom and Ireland). BundeskriminalamtZV34 – Petitionenten65173 WiesbadenGermanyE-Mail: Andorra has not signed the agreement on the implementation of the Schengen Agreement, but no controls at its borders with the neighbouring countries Spain and France. San Marino has also not signed the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement, but has no border control with its only neighbour, Italy. The Schengen Convention and its implementing Convention were adopted in 1995 for only a few signatories, but just over two years later, at the Amsterdam Intergovernmental Conference, all the Member States of the European Union, with the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, had signed the Convention.

During these negotiations, which culminated in the Treaty of Amsterdam, it was agreed to integrate the Schengen acquis[7] into the main body of EU law, as well as derogations for Ireland and the United Kingdom (which withdrew from the EU in 2020), which were to remain outside the Schengen area. [8] The first Member States were Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Exceptionally, where there is a serious threat to public policy or internal security, a Schengen country may temporarily reintroduce internal border controls. Although neither Iceland nor Norway are EU Member States, both countries are fully implementing the Schengen acquis on the basis of the Association Agreement they concluded with the EU on 18 May 1999. EU countries enjoy autonomy in many aspects of their policy-making, including foreign policy, but are linked to the EU`s judicial and legislative bodies. .